What's Going On?

Observation Tree Platform

Agroforestry

High-terrace Rainforest Discovery

Herpetology and Discovery of Adandoned Gold-mining Site

Making Coffee From Scratch

Artificial Bullet Ant Nest

Caiman & Mammal Monitoring

Discovery of Lake 2!

Giant River Otters at Lake 2

Discovery of Lake 3

Egg of Undescribed Spider Species

The Bat Boat

Egg Excavation of Black Caiman Nest

Mammal Corridor

Boat Hauling to Lake 2

The Island

Upgraded Plant Nursery

Finding the South American Bushdog

 

 

Egg of Undescribed Species of Spider

On an excursion to the first lake, an egg belonging to a spider that remains undescribed was discovered on the trunk of a palm tree. This spider is quite rare and has only previously been found in the Tambopata National Reserve. What is remarkable about this spider is its way of laying only a single egg rather that constructing one enclosed egg sack containing all of its young. Amazingly, another egg of this same spider was found here a few days after the first discovery.

Alexandra Lopez

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The Bat boat

In the last week of May, Panthera Sanctuary faced a setback. On a Monday morning following a storm, both of our boats disappeared. It remains unclear as to how this occurred but the fact remained that they were no longer in our possession. Since the sanctuary is located only 35 kilometers from the Bolivian border, we decided to rent a water taxi to take us to the border control. During this time another storm had hit. As we finally arrived in the pouring rain to the border control along the Madre de Dios river, the guards gave us the bad news that no boats with our description had made it to the border. One thing was clear: we were probably never going to see our boats ever again.
Fortunately, we were able to put together some resources and purchase a small but sturdy fiberglass boat. While it may not be a large fancy tourist boat, it seats up to eight individuals and has proven to be more durable than our previous wooden and aluminum boat. Hand-made right in town, the bland boat along with its second-hand outboard motor made its way back downriver to the sanctuary. While the boat was purchased due to an unfortunate event, it gave our volunteers currently at Panthera the opportunity to paint and personalize the characterless boat. One volunteer was an art teacher and led the way in design and painted letters. In addition to the paint job, a small varnished floor of wooden planks was also constructed.  After everything was done, we had ourselves a spiffy little speedboat! While this new boat will suffice for now, we hope to be able to purchase another boat in the future.

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Black Caiman Nest: Egg Excavation

  

Continuing our work from last month, we ventured to Lake 3 once again. The female caiman spotted previously had appeared in the same spot—placing herself defensively between us and the small island. Our first attempt at searching for the nest just one week before was unsuccessful since the female growled and charged at us as we tried to approach the water. Her excellent hearing and vision made it easy for her to detect our movement, especially as a group of only three individuals. This time with the help of volunteers, one group was able to distract the female while another crossed over to the island. The nest was located under an aguaje palm tree on the highest point of the island. The eggs were found in the nest 60 centimeters below the surface protected by aguaje roots, their decomposing leaves, and pieces of old termite nest. Inside the nest were a total of 15 eggs, 14 healthy and 1 rotten. We have collected one healthy egg to be artificially incubated back at Panthera. 

 

This photo of the dead egg reveals the discoloration and deterioration of the shell

compared to the healthy eggs above

 

Alexandra Lopez

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Mammal Corridor


    

Mammal Corridor is the name of one particular activity that must be completed at least once a week with volunteers. This activity involves gathering fruits from overproducing trees in our garden and distributing them in designated forest areas for the animals. There are a total of four designated areas; two terrestrial and two arboreal sites. The ground sites are left with green bananas, plantains, and ripe orange papaya nicely sliced and placed by the volunteers. Terrestrial mammals such as peccaries and tapirs are our most frequent visitors based on both footprints and game camera footage. In attracting herbivorous mammals such as those previously listed, we also indirectly lure predatory mammals including jaguars, pumas, and other smaller felines.

These two sites are quite effective in attracting ground dwelling animals, but what about those who spend most if not all their time above ground? Since most have adapted to life in the trees, they seldom leave the comfort of the trees and vines unless its necessary. However, they risk being preyed upon by those animals having the greater advantage on the forest floor. As a result, we have constructed two tree platforms held by rope, allowing them to be raised and lowered to any desired level. The same kinds of fruits are left on the tree platforms as the ground sites, the only difference being the bananas and plantains being more yellow in color. Various monkey species make their appearance, although nonmammalian animals including toucans, aracaris, macaws, and numerous parrots dine on our sweet fruits. 

Why do we set out food for these animals? Aren’t they able to feed themselves? Yes. They are 100% capable of finding their own food without our help. Our purpose of leaving out food is to coax them onto Panthera’s property. Outside our borders lie individuals who kill all kinds of wildlife for their meat, skin or feathers, offspring to be sold in the illegal pet trade, for sport, or simply out of fear. More animals who choose to forage on our terrain not only ensures them a place free of poaching, but a greater chance for our volunteers to spot wildlife as well.

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Boat Hauling to Lake 2

 

Volunteers taking a break from pulling the boat.

We have mentioned the significance of Lake 2’s biodiversity in one of our previous blogs. While a small boat was placed at the lake, its size could only hold two people. Our goal for this month was to pull out our larger boat from Lake 1 and transport it to Lake 2. Since the thickness of our path between the two lakes was pretty minimal, it would be pretty difficult to pull the boat. Volunteers worked countless hours to clean the trail just wide enough for the width of the boat to pass through. This was the time where most volunteers really acquired efficient and safe machete skills. Once the trail was cleaned, but hardest task began; the pulling of the boat. Weighing in at a minimum of five hundred kilograms, volunteers managed to pull the boat approximately two and a half kilometers on rugged terrain in a single day. We have never seen such dedication, strength, and focus on their faces that day. The larger boat was placed in the water, ready to be navigated at Lake 2.

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The Island

Small pool, home to tadpoles and small fish

This month we explored a small island located in front of Panthera. We did not expect to find very much evidence of wildlife since the island is quite isolated. The east part of the island was armed with spiny palm trees and vines, while the west side was more representative of the primary rainforest we have back at Panthera. It was amazing to see the surmounting evidence of life on this small portion of land! Footprints of Capybara, agouti, armadillo, caimans, and even a jaguar were observed on the beach and forest floor. The extremely low river level exposed a large segment of the river bed, extending the beach of the island. The side of the island with the largest beach reveals pool of water filled with tadpoles, and capybara trails, aw well as wide spaces of dry, cracked earth. These sandy surfaces looked closer to the desert than rainforest.

Dry Riverbed 

Beep Beep! Capybara foot traffic! The mud provides a great way for us to track wildlife before it dries.

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Upgraded Plant Nursery

 

           

                                                  Before

 

                      

                                                After

After being so wrapped up on wildlife monitoring and long expeditions in the forest, we realized that one small area on the reserve received little attention; our plant nursery. After being battered around by falling branches, insect herbivory, and deteriorating infrastructure from termites, we decided it was time to redesign and renovate the area. During this process, all plants were transplanted to another location, weeds were uprooted, a new structure was built, and fresh, fertile black earth replaced the old hardened soil. Raised soil beds were made to allow for better drainage

All support structures we utilized were gathered from strong, natural plant material already existing on the main site. The sides of the garden bed were made and assembled using wood of a cecropia tree, a type of fast growing tree highly abundant in disturbed (secondary) rainforest. We used Ubos, or the Hog Plum Tree for posts of the nursery. If you cut a branch from a mature Ubos and plant it into the ground, it will grow its own root structure and develop into its own tree. In this manner, we can use a durable wood structure without killing the tree.
Lastly, a green permeable mesh was placed as the “roof” of the plant nursery. This special type of screen enables sufficient sunlight and rain to be accessed by plants while also protecting them from direct exposure to harsher environmental conditions, factors that can harm the development of these small, fragile plants.

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Finding the South American Bushdog

During a mammal monitoring excursion to the aguajal (flooded palm tree swamp) we accidentally encountered a group of South American Bush Dogs! With short tails and bear-like face, this group of 5 individuals were surrounding a pond of water, where they appeared to be waiting for something. Unfortunately, these dogs discovered our presence after five minutes despite our attempts to hide among the vegetation, and ventured away from the pond and into the deeper inaccessible (to us) areas of the swamp. While we were recording their peculiar behavior on our monitoring sheet, we noticed something surfacing from the pool of water the bush dogs had surrounded. After various attempts to get a good glimpse of this surfacing creature, we finally saw what this mysterious animal was…..a capybara! But what was it doing there? We jotted down some observations regarding the capybara and began to head back to camp.

 

 

Pictures taken with volunteer GoPro (Thank you Evan Woody!) and may not have high resolution, but provide enough distinguishing features of the bush dog

 

Excited, yet confused, we decided to do some research on the South American Bush Dog. We found that these rare canines are semi-aquatic and have adapted to a life near water. Evidence of this includes their elongate, mustelid-like (mustelids being weasels, otter, or mongooses) bodies and webbing between their toes. Can you guess what part of their diet includes? If you guessed medium to large sized rodents such as capybara, would be correct! We can hypothesize that these bush dogs were stalking the capybara in the water, just waiting to make their move. Did we save a capybara’s life? Or did we prevent the bush dogs was snatching up a delicious meal? You decide...

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